Note: This unit version is currently under review and is subject to change!
ELEC5101: Antennas and Propagation (2013 - Semester 2)
|Unit:||ELEC5101: Antennas and Propagation (6 CP)|
|Faculty/School:||School of Electrical and Information Engineering|
A/Prof Atai, Javid
|Session options:||Semester 2|
|Versions for this Unit:|
|Site(s) for this Unit:||
|Brief Handbook Description:||The basics of antenna radiation are introduced with emphasis on the important performance characteristics of the radiation field pattern (in 3 dimensions) and feed impedance. The omnidirectional and Hertzian dipole antennas (both hypothetical in practise but robust theoretically) provide the starting point to analyse real antenna operation. Mutual coupling between close antennas and important 'ground' imaging effects lead to the design of antenna arrays to increase gain and directivity. Aperture antennas and frequency broadbanding techniques are introduced. Ionospheric propagation is discussed and also the the reception efficiency of receiving antennas which allows consideration of a Transmitter - Receiver 'Link budget'. The important 'Pocklington' equation for a wire dipole is developed from Maxwell's equations and leads to the numerical analysis of wire antennas using 'Moment' methods. Real world applications are emphasised throughout and are reinforced by the hands on laboratory program which includes design projects.|
Dr Lucas, Godfrey
|T&L Activities:||Lecture: Each Lecture employs an Audio Visual display making full use of computer resources and Maple`s 3 Dimensional abilities.
Independent Study: An absolute minimum of 4 hours per week will be expected making full use of the website resources and reading material outside the Lecture content to make the necessary inroads in to a very important and complex subject area.
Attributes listed here represent the key course goals (see Course Map tab) designated for this unit. The list below describes how these attributes are developed through practice in the unit. See Learning Outcomes and Assessment tabs for details of how these attributes are assessed.
|Attribute Development Method||Attribute Developed|
|Sudents will be able to assess the balance between theory and practise in solving a specified antenna problem.||Design (Level 4)|
|Understand the fundamental requirements of antenna performanc, propagation issues and the concept of an antenna link budget, design of a broad variety of Antenna systems, and computer based analysis.||Engineering/IT Specialisation (Level 5)|
|The Laboratory work is presented in the form of a detailed Logbook.||Communication (Level 2)|
|Group interaction in the Laboratory to tackle testing design challenges.||Project Management and Team Skills (Level 2)|
For explanation of attributes and levels see Engineering & IT Graduate Outcomes Table.
Learning outcomes are the key abilities and knowledge that will be assessed in this unit. They are listed according to the course goal supported by each. See Assessment Tab for details how each outcome is assessed.Design (Level 4)
Final Exam: This is an `open book` examination where students are expected to demonstrate their full understanding of the course content and to be able to demonstrate their ability to tackle unusual antenna problems.
Report: The practical program provides real hands on experience of the important aspects of antenna operation. Students are able to get a feel for the fields in space which cannot be seen, a very real understanding of antenna patterns is acquired and the hugely important imaging and mutual impedance effects are well illustrated. Students also experience the performance of satellite reception antennas.
|Policies & Procedures:||See the policies page of the faculty website at http://sydney.edu.au/engineering/student-policies/ for information regarding university policies and local provisions and procedures within the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technologies.|
Note: Students are expected to have a personal copy of all books listed.
Note: References are provided for guidance purposes only. Students are advised to consult these books in the university library. Purchase is not required.
|Online Course Content:||
|Note on Resources:||Powerpoint 'Movies' develop radiation into free space with time. Throughout the development 3 - dimensional radiation are developed using the 'Maple' computer program which is available for student use in the Laboratory.|
Note that the "Weeks" referred to in this Schedule are those of the official university semester calendar https://web.timetable.usyd.edu.au/calendar.jsp
|Week 1||The course is introduced with a pictorial review of everyday antennas which we will encounter in the course. Basic ideas of radiation fields and the important links with RF transmission lines are developed. We meet the simplest wire antenna - a half wave dipole.|
|Week 2||The ideas of Maxwell are introduced clearly and simply and lead us straightforwardly to the important ""Vector Potential" which we can apply to analyse a "Hertzian" dipole - which is a hypothetical antenna - but it is an easy building block which we can use to analyse real antennas like the half wave dipole antenna - which is very real and widely used.|
|Week 3||We develop the 'radiation patterns' of antennas in 3 - dimensional space - these patterns are always of the "Electric" field. Boundary conditions at a perfect conducting surface are reviewed and and lead to the importance of imaging and its effects on radiation patterns. We consider a very simple image antenna which is used world wide to guide the final approach and landing of aircraft. We meet large Reflector antennas which use the focussing effects of paraboloids and hyperboloids to achieve very high performance.|
|Week 4||We meet the important 'quarter wave' monopole antenna and learn how 'folding' affects the input (drive) impedance. The corner reflector antenna is introduced at this time because we make extensive us of it in the Laboratory.|
|Week 5||We look at using arrays of antennas to improve their performance. We find that Fourier Transforms also apply to antennas. We meet the 'Schelkunoff' theory of 'Linear Arrays' which is a design tool to meet a required antenna array specification. We explain the "Moment" method for analysing wire antennas and we develop our own simple computer analysis which produces remarkably accurate results despite the seemingly crude assumptions that we make. We compare our results with a commercial package called "EZNEC"|
|Week 6||We meet patch antennas which are normally implemented by removing copper (usually with chemical etching) from one side of a double sided dielectric board to create patches and arrays of patches which provide conformal antennas which are particularly useful for aircraft and spacecraft. We avoid the chemical problem in the Lab by using an air dielectric to demonstrate the performance.|
|Week 7||Reciprocity is discussed. This leads to consideration of the antenna as a receiver with discussion of the effective "catching/receiving area" of a receiving antenna. We can then consider the performance of the 'Link' budget which applies to a simple transmitting - receiving antenna system.|
|Week 8||We design a variety of travelling wave antennas - which are typically used at HF for ionospheric propagation. An interesting example is the "Jindalee" Over the Horizon Radar system which was developed in Australia. We consider the problems of Very Low Frequency antennas - a very real example being the "Omega" navigational system..|
|Week 9||We consider the NEAR fields of an antenna which has a much more complex structure than when the fields have settled down in the "far" field. We can now look in detail at the effects that antennas have on each other when placed in close proximity.|
|Week 10||We meet Helical antennas which produce CIRCULAR polarization and the difference from linear polarised antennas that we have met up to this point.|
|Week 11||Virtually all of the example antennas that we meet through the course are analysed using the "EZNEC" package and the strengths and weaknesses of numerical approaches will be discussed in detail.|
|Week 12||We look at the huge variety of antenna designs that continues to develop including designs for really wide bandwidth and other demanding applications which need to be solved.|
|Week 13||Course review/Revision. Specific query response.|
|STUVAC (Week 14)||Students with difficulties are encouraged to send email queries to which comprehensive 'Feedback Responses' are provided on the course web page.|
|Exam Period||Students are encouraged to take their comprehensive laboratory notebook with them in to the (Open Book) examination session and it is then required to be submitted with their examination paper.|
|Assessment Due: Final Exam|
The following is a list of courses which have added this Unit to their structure.
This unit contributes to the achievement of the following course goals:
|Design (Level 4)||Yes||18.29%|
|Engineering/IT Specialisation (Level 5)||Yes||73.15%|
|Maths/Science Methods and Tools (Level 3)||No||0%|
|Information Seeking (Level 2)||No||0%|
|Communication (Level 2)||Yes||4.29%|
|Professional Conduct (Level 2)||No||0%|
|Project Management and Team Skills (Level 2)||Yes||4.29%|
These goals are selected from Engineering & IT Graduate Outcomes Table which defines overall goals for courses where this unit is primarily offered. See Engineering & IT Graduate Outcomes Table for details of the attributes and levels to be developed in the course as a whole. Percentage figures alongside each course goal provide a rough indication of their relative weighting in assessment for this unit. Note that not all goals are necessarily part of assessment. Some may be more about practice activity. See Learning outcomes for details of what is assessed in relation to each goal and Assessment for details of how the outcome is assessed. See Attributes for details of practice provided for each goal.